Vajrayana (tantric buddhism)
Vajrayana, or Tantric Buddhism, has been described as the latest phase in the development and evolution of Buddhist thought. For a long time, Western scholars dismissed Vajrayana as the final degenerate phase of Buddhist thought. This attitude was due to the fact that these materialistic scholars had only a Christian or a secular way of seeing the world. They could appreciate ordinary Buddhism (Theravada, etc), seeing the Buddha as the Christ of the East teaching an essentially moral message, or as a sort of spiritual humanist; but when faced with a system of knowledge and practice that embraced all the magical and occult elements that Western rationalism had rejected centuries ago, could only explain it as some sort of degenerate end phase.
Fortunately, in more recent times other Westerners have studied Tantric Buddhism first hand, at the feet of actual Tibetan Masters, and so have a more mature appreciation and respect for that noble tradition. Indeed, if anything good has come out of the terrible Chinese invasion and oppression of the Tibetan homeland in the 2nd half of the 20th century, it has been that this has driven Tibetan lamas and teachers to the West, and encouraged them to spread their tradition among sympathetic Westerners.
Vajrayana metaphysics is, like Indian Tantra, a hybrid affair: a coming together of Indian Tantrism, Mahayana Buddhism, and the original aboriginal shamanism the Bon tradition of Tibet itself. Like the Nathas, Shaktas, and Shaivites, the Vajrayanists postulated a subtle or iconographic body, made up of chakras, nadis, and subtle winds (vayu). And like their Indian counterparts they worked on manipulating the forces of this subtle body through yoga in order to attain spiritual enlightenment. But Vajrayana tantra diverged very early from Indian tantra. Instead of the later seven-chakra model, they retain an earlier four chak-ra schema of navel, heart, throat, and head centres. Starting from this four-chakra foundation, the Vajrayanists like the Indian tantics built up a very elaborate system of correspondences.
There are a number of other important differences to Indian (Shakta) Tantra as well. In Indian tantra one starts form the base chakra and progresses up. In Tibetan tantra one starts from the head, which is the lowest level of consciousness (body, waking consciousness, wrathful deities), and progresses down to the heart, which is the highest level of consciousness.
With Indian Tantra the kundalini is awakened through specific breathing practices and yoga-postures. The prana or vital-force of the subtle body is thus manipulated through the breath and the physical body; through an extension of Hatha yoga which, the reader will recall, was associated from the beginning with Indian Tantra. In contrast, Vajrayana practice involves manipulating the vital force through the mind and concentration. Through intense visualisation of deities and so on, one activates the inner winds (= prana = ch’i) and drops.
The Instead of the Kundalini-Shakti or Serpent Fire of Shakta Tantrism, Vajrayana has the Tumo (literally fierce woman). Through intense visualisation of deities and concentration upon the lower tip (the minor chakra at the tip of the sex-organ), the winds (prana) are drawn into the lower opening of the central channel (sushumna), producing an intense heat, called tumo [Daniel Cozort, Highest Yoga Tantra, p.71]. In her fascinating book, Magic and Mystery in Tibet Alexandra David-Neel popularised stories of Tibetan yogis drying icy sheets with their naked bodies outside in the middle of winter. That is a showy exhibition of tumo. Real tumo of course is the tantric meditation itself.
As a result of the tumo-heat, the drops melt and enter the central channel. The red female drops in the navel chakra ascends to the heart chakra, while the white drops in the crown chakra descend to the same chakra. The bliss of the drops flowing in the central channel is said to be a hundred times greater than that of orgasm [p.71]. The drops, moving up or down the central channel, finally enter the indestructable drop in the heart chakra, so called because it is said to be drop that passes from life-time to life-time, taking with it the very subtle mind and very subtle wind [p.72].
The entire visualization or meditation stage itself is called the stage of Generation, as its purpose of is to construct or generate an actual enlightenment or buddha-body, the stage of Completion. The result of all this is that one rises in anillusory body, so called because it is a spirit body rather than a physical body, and at death, rather than be caught up by the bardo and reincarnation, one remains in full consciousness in the illusory body, so attaining Buddhahood.
Love and passion in tantric buddhist art
Notwithstanding the fact that the Buddha essence is non-polar, Buddhist iconographers use sexual polarity to symbolize the twin concepts of insight and compassion. All goddesses are symbols of insight and the gods represent compassion. The union of compassion and insight symbolizes the non-polarized state of bodhicitta, or the mind of enlightenment, which is represented visually by showing two deities engaged in sexual union. Tibetans characterize such images as yab-yum, which literally means father-mother; in Sanskrit the expression is yuganaddha (pair united). This sexual metaphor is also used to denote the highest stage of yoga in which there is no polarity, no discrimination, and the truth is indivisible as the vajra itself. It may be added parenthetically that while such images, whether statues or paintings, are today much sought after by collectors and boldly displayed in museums, in Tibet they were always meant to be seen only by the initiated. The rites associated with these images were also arcane and not for public consumption.
The word Tantra itself is derived from the verbal root tan, meaning to weave. Many things are interwoven on the Tantric path, including the lives of men and women. The Buddha couples of Tantric iconography celebrate this deep harmony of the sexes. The purpose of this dynamic was the creation of partnerships devoted to the realization of the ultimate truth. For instance, the man cultivates pure vision by seeing the woman as a deity, her sexual organ as the throne of enlightenment, and her sexual fluid as divine nectar. Thus according to the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, sexual union also constitutes a fire sacrifice, as performed by the creator god Prajapati upon creating woman:
Having created her, he worshipped her sexual organ;
Therefore a woman’s sexuality should be worshipped.
He stretched forth from himself a stone for pressing nectar
[i.e., causing a woman’s sexual fluid to flow]
And impregnated her with that.
Her lap is the sacrificial altar;
Her hair, the sacrificial grass;
Her skin the soma press;
The depths of her sexual organ, the fire in the middle
. . . . . . . . . . Many mortals go forth from this world without merit,
Namely, those who practice sexual union without knowing this.
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 6.4.1-4
Often the mother is shown in a posture with both legs around the father’s waist. In this remarkable and richly symbolic manifestation, both the male and the female are emanations of the Buddha. They appear simultaneously united and independent, like the complex relationship of sameness and difference between wisdom (female) and compassion (male) in the enlightened state. Ponderous, energetic forms confront the viewer in this stunning portrayal. Shamvara (supreme bliss) embraces the massive sky blue body of his consort Vajravarahi, holding in his hands various implements symbolic of his triumph over ignorance and evil. She gazes rapturously and intently at her consort with her head thrown back, heightening their electrifying aura. Two of her arms tightly clutch Shamvara’s neck. His first two arms embrace his consort, and holding a Vajra and a bell make the diamond HUM sound gesture with the crossed wrists, behind her back. This gesture celebrates the inseparable union of method and wisdom.
Along with Gopa, he experienced bliss.
By uniting the diamond scepter and lotus,
He attained the fruit of bliss.
Buddhahood is obtained from bliss, and
Apart from women there will not be bliss
And at another place:
The man [sees] the woman as a goddess
The woman [sees] the man as a god.
By joining the diamond scepter and lotus,
They should make offerings to each other.
There is no worship apart from this.
The father-mother union image is not an example of erotic art, but is a manifestation of the Buddha’s highest spiritual essence. More than metaphorical, to the devout Tibetan this image is concrete evidence of the existence of great spiritual attainment. The female (mother) represents transcendent wisdom: the direct awareness of reality as the Buddha experienced it and taught it. The male (father), represents compassion for all beings, which is the natural expression of such wisdom. Their union, although exquisitely blissful, is ultimately undertaken out of compassion for the world. This sacred communion of the male and female Buddha generates waves of bliss and harmony that turn the world into a Mandala (container of essence) and showers forth a rain of nectar that satisfies the spiritual hunger in the hearts of living beings everywhere. Modern depth psychology has recognized such images to represent the deepest archetypes of the unconscious, integrating the powerful instinctual energies of life into a consciously sublimated and exalted state.
The texts often refer to the union of a lotus and vajra, or diamond scepter. Clearly, lotus and vajra are metaphors, not literal terms. One is not meant to bring together a flower and a scepter, but something denoted by these terms. Depending upon the level of interpretation, uniting the lotus and the vajra can mean uniting wisdom and compassion, or bliss and emptiness, within the practitioner’s psyche, or bringing together the female and male organs in physical union, or a number of other things that must be combined on the path to enlightenment.
The forms expressing this union are based upon the germinal mantra Om mani padme Hum’. This mantra contains both mani, meaning jewel, synonym for vajra, the word which means diamond, thunderbolt and the male organ, and padme meaning in the lotus’ (locative case of padma), a symbol for the female sexual organ, the outer opening of which resembles the petals of a lotus. This formal similarity, as well as the fact that the lotus is a Buddhist symbol of purity and enlightenment, makes this magnificent flower a natural symbol for feminine sexuality. The supportive texts envision a resplendent world of vivid color, choreographed movement, exquisite texture, and intimate gesture:
|Constantly take refuge at my feet, my dear
Be gracious, beloved, and
Give me pleasure with your diamond scepter.
Look at my three-petaled lotus,
Its center adorned with a stamen.
It is a Buddha paradise, adorned with a red Buddha,
A cosmic mother who bestows
Bliss and tranquility on the passionate.
Abandon all conceptual thought and
Unite with my reclining form;
Place my feet upon your shoulders and look me up and down.
Make the fully awakened scepter
Enter the opening in the center of the lotus.
Move a hundred,thousand,hundred thousand times
In my three-petaled lotus Of swollen flesh.
Placing one’s scepter there, offer pleasure to her mind.
Wind, inner wind-my lotus is the unexcelled!
Aroused by the tip of the diamond scepter,
It is red like a bandhuka flower.
Another common Tantric metaphor for sexual union is the image of the Churner and the Churned. Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), drawing on a range of Indian sources, explains that churning the female partner with the diamond scepter is the efficient cause of the nectar of Buddhahood, and argues that just as fire is kindled by rubbing two sticks together, bliss is generated by churning. The image of churning also refers to the Hindu myth wherein gods and demons churn the cosmic ocean of milk to extract its nectar. The goddess Sakti is produced from this process, and her sexual fluids become the immortality-bestowing nectar the gods are seeking. Thus, churning the yogic partner, which stimulates the flow of her nectar, mirrors the stirring of the cosmic ocean for its potent, liberating nectar. Churning also connotes the circulation of the yogic energy as it surges within the psychic channels and then rises in the central channel. Thus, the metaphor of churning, which appears to be a simple physical analogy, resonates richly with various nuances of Tantric union.
Tantric Buddhism is unique among Buddhist sub-traditions in its acceptance of the body and sense experience as sources of knowledge and power. Tantric Buddhists eulogized the body as an abode of bliss and boldly affirmed that desire, sexuality, and pleasure can be embraced on the path to enlightenment. In keeping with this life-affirming orientation, the movement upheld the possibility of liberating relationships between men and women and envisioned cooperative yogic methods that men and women can perform together in order to transform the ardor of their intimacy and passion into blissful, enlightened states of awareness. This mood of exuberant delight, graceful sensuousness, and reciprocity that often characterizes the sculpted and painted couples also suffuses the literary descriptions in the Tantric texts, which exult in an open and unshamed affirmation of sensuality in a religious context:
Therefore, one who desires Buddhahood
Should practice what is to be practiced.
To renounce the sense objects
Is to torture oneself by asceticism-don’t do it!
When you see form, look!
Similarly, listen to sounds,
Taste delicious flavors,
Use the objects of the five senses
You will quickly attain supreme Buddhahood.
Tantra asserts that, instead of suppressing, vision and ecstasy, they should be cultivated and used. Because sensation and emotion are the most powerful human motive forces, they should not be crushed out, but harnessed to the ultimate goal. Properly channeled they can provide an unparalleled source of energy, bringing benefits to society as well as continually increasing ecstasy for the individual. Tantra deals in love, and love needs objects. One cannot love nothing. Love means care; and care carried to the limit is perhaps the ultimate social virtue.